În urmă cu ceva timp am comentat un pasaj dintr-o lucrare a lui Friedrich Nietzsche. Mai jos aveţi această abordare personală. Am încercat să scot în evidenţă mesajul pe care filozoful îl transmite despre natura umană şi rolul Statului ca factor de putere. Aştept cu interes comentariile voastre.
“To breed an animal with the right to make promises – is not this the paradoxical task that nature has set itself in the case of man? Is it not the real problem regarding man?”
(Friedrich Nietzsche- “On the Genealogy of Morals”,
Second Essay “Guilt, Bad Conscience, and the Like”, p. 57)
In the second essay, Nietzsche puts the question on the “promises” made by a man, a man seen in its natural state as an animal. So, a man here is not a “social animal” like in the concept of Aristotle, but an animal that makes promises for life. It is the one who wants to overcome his natural condition to be a part of a community life. What are the consequences for these promises? Responsibility to maintain the appearance of a form called “robust health”. This metaphor who show in the best way the ability of a man to maintain his vices, ideals endless, “fixed ideas”, take this shape, a robust shape. Mistrust and insecurity, oppression increase the volume of the health, maintained by uncertainty if you know what is right and what is wrong.
One of the greatest Romanian philosophers Constantin Noica, made an exceptional remark, who defines this animalist condition of a man: “People forgive you if you murder, but do not forgive if you are happy”. I think he made this remark not to defend the killer, but to stop, perhaps failure of promises, of those who are happy. Here we see cruelty as a form of festival (p. 67). Who measures the effects of promises? “Justice” (p.70) is the breaker between the creditor and the debtor, because “being just is always a positive attitude” (p. 74).
The effect of the promises makes the man to violate his freedom to do what he wants. Therefore, punishment is coming to kill freedom, but build memory instead like a continuous “prehistory”. Man surrenders himself to the mean of “soul”, and the forgiving “God”. The “evil eye” (p.95) is the one who contradicts the promises. Unless the man does not see, could stop his way of being attacked by the “bad conscience”. Blindness can be either a new promise, or a way to keep the “robust health” for not to be punish. Blindness stops the will to have power.
The instincts which man annihilates them with promises lead to the formation of the State. This “blonde beast” or a “labyrinth of the breast” defines the role of freedom (p. 86-87) that has the role to lead the man into sin. A long way of thoughts makes the man to be placed between being responsible or being against. For this reason, punishment takes a few forms, depending on the “feelings” of what man beliefs about the way of life. State makes the man to conquer the power. Who is more right, more just, will lead the procedures of punishment.